The Boston Tea Party Of 1773

The Boston Tea Party of 1773 was a quiet act of rebellion in protest to the many taxes levied upon the colonies by the British Parliamentary government.

In 1765 The British Parliament enacted the Stamp Act, a tax on legal and commercial documents, including print materials such as pamphlets and newpapers, requiring a special stamp to be placed on all, in order to transfer part of the cost to operate the American colonies to the colonials themselves. The Stamp Act was the first direct tax imposed on the colonies by Britain. The Townshend Acts, which were taxes levied on the colonies by Parliament for items such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea, were enacted in 1967. These acts together caused a stirring of unrest among the colonials, who were beginning to feel unfairly burdened, and Parliament eventually rescinded the Acts after several colonial boycotts, leaving only the tax on tea.

Everything was relatively peaceful until 1773. The British East India Company was facing financial ruin, partially due to smuggled tea and other goods being sold in the colonies by ships from Holland. The East India Company convinced Parliament that unless something was done to remedy the situation, not only would the shipping company itself be ruined, but the overall prosperity of Britain would be compromised as well. Parliament agreed to refund the duty tax on the tea to the East India Company, thus enabling them to charge less for their product than their Dutch competitors. This act served a threefold purpose, as it would save the East India Company from financial ruin, destroy the assets of the competition, and would still uphold British taxation levied on the colonies.

The East India Company made plans to ship almost 500,000 pounds of tea to ports in Boston, Charleston, Philadelphia, and New York in September of 1773. This plan was doomed to failure, however, as East India Company now held a monopoly on tea distribution in the colonies, and this made colonial merchants nervous. Fearing the establishment of even more British controlled monopolies, the merchants aligned themselves with the more radical revolutionaries in opposition to the tea shipment.

The merchants made a pact among themselves to not sell tea from the British East India company, even were it to succeed in being delivered. The tea agents in the ports of Charleston, Philadelphia, and New York managed to either cancel their shipments of tea or resign their commissions, effectively halting the tea distribution in those towns. All that was left was Boston, a town in which all of the tea consignees were either friends or relatives of the governor at the time, Thomas Hutchinson. Thomas Hutchinson was determined to follow British law, and thus allowed the East India Company to dock with their cargo.

Samuel and John Adams, Josiah Quincy, and John Hancock led an opposing faction against Britain and the tea tax. They were intent on barring any further legislation being imposed on the colonies by the British, and managed to stir fellow radicals to their cause. On November 27, 1773, a ship owned by East India Company, the Dartmouth, sailed into Boston's port with a fresh cargo of tea. The owner, Francis Rotch, was prevented from unloading any of the product by the Sons of Liberty and the Committee of Correspondence, two groups of patriotic radicals, but the consignees could not be convinced to reject the shipment. Two more ships arrived, the Eleanor and the Beaver, and the captains of the two vessels agreed to leave without unloading their tea, but Governor Hutchinson would not permit it. He was determined that the tea be sold.

Port law declared that if the three vessels were not emptied of cargo within 20 days of docking, port authorities would seize the contents and auction it off in order to pay duty taxes. This did not sit well with the colonial opposition at all, as the taxes they were protesting would still be met. They resolved to take action, and a mass meeting was held, to which Rotch, captain of the Dartmouth, was invited. The group demanded that Rotch again attempt to receive clearance to leave port, his unwanted cargo in tow, but to no avail. The customs collectors and the governor held firm in their denials.

The situation stewed until December 16, 1773, when a group of patriots disguised themselves as Mohawk Indians and crept from the South Meeting House intent on radical action. They headed to the three ships docked at Griffin's Wharf, a large group of spectators trailing behind them, and proceeded to cut open 342 chests of tea, dumping the entire contents into the ocean. The entire undertaking was rather silent, with no hue or cry breaking the air until one man, Charles O'Connor, was spied loading his greatcoat with tea. He was immediately seized, his smuggled cargo discarded, and threatened with death if he revealed the identity of any of the culprits. The rest of the evening passed uneventfully, and the "Mohawks" proceeded home quietly when it was over.

The British government was enraged. In response to the destruction of the tea shipment they passed a series of laws referred to as the Intolerable Acts, which effectively took most of the governing power from the people of Massachusets, laying all of the power into the British Government's hands, as well as closing Boston's port. The people of Boston now faced economic ruin, but still held firm in their belief that taxation without representation was unfair. Other port towns throughout the colonies were outraged, and many staged tea parties of their own, which sparked even more legislation from Britain. Thus was the beginning of the violence that would eventually lead to the Revolutionary War.

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