The History Of Communism

History about communism, a branch of socialism, focusing on the theories and principles of communism itself, and also mentioning communism as it has been practiced in the world.

Communism, a branch of socialism, is a social system, characterized by lack of private property. The community as a whole owns the means of production and thus the profit is shared equally with everyone. In theory, labor would be divided up among all citizens according to ability and interest and resources would be distributed according to need. There would also be no ruler, no president, king or dictator.

In 1848, the Communist Manifesto was published by Karl Marx and Frank Engels, citing the principles and ideas of communism. Marx and Engels analyzed modern society,especially the capitalist economy. Accordingly, capitalism emphasizes the rights of the individual and claims to give equal opportunity for every person to succeed in life. Marx and Engels point out however that capitalism creates classes among the citizens, and leads to the oppression and exploitation of the lower classes. More specifically, modern capitalism has created two classes: bourgeois, the

owners of the means of production, and the proletariat, the laborers.

Communism, and socialism in general, is designed to cultivate a classless society in which everyone is truly equal, and such social problems as racism, sexism and oppression are exterminated. Many respected scholars,

including Albert Einstein, have agreed that socialism is the next evolution of society. They have also agreed that the implementation of socialism is difficult, and thus far, communist nations have proved this to be true.

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics had the most successful attempt at communism so far to date, but had problems from the beginning due to internal corruption. Vladmir Lenin led a revolution against the czar, Queen

Alexandra, in 1917, catching the monarchy off guard during World War One. After three years of struggle, Lenin finally took control.

During the reign of Stalin, the USSR was more of a dictatorship than communist. His tactics to modernize the country to a socialistic level, called Stalinism, strictly suppressed any sign of autonomy, which were his personal ideas and were in no way related to true communism.

Between 1945 and 1975, a number of communist nations arose in Europe. The USSR rose to power and was soon second only to the United States. Other countries followed the Soviet path to communism, including Vietnam (after defeating the US military and annexing South Vietnam), North Korea,

China and then Cuba, although China is also more of a dictatorship.

The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, due to the depletion of their economy for military resources during the Cold War. The Soviet republics broke off into independent nations and fell into a state of anarchy and in a last

chance effort, converted to democracy. Boris Yeltsin took over the newly democratic Russia, which failed once again due to overprinting their money and Yeltsin's dictatorial rule.

Several countries today are communist, including China and Cuba. Since communism is still in an infantile stage, the problems are still being smoothed out. Only the future will reveal whether communism is an unattainable theory of utopia or whether it is the next step for society.

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