Muhammad Ali Jinnah Biography

Muhammad Ali Jinnah also known as Quaid-e-Azam is one of the greatest leaders of sub-continent. Learn more about him.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, also known as "Quaid-e-Azam" in the history of India, is not only a great leader of Muslims of Indian sub-continent but he also holds an important position in the row of world politicians. The thing that distinguishes him from others leaders of the world is that he used Britain's constitution to defeat Britains and won independence for his nation although he had to face stiff resistance from British government and great opposition from the Hindus' Indian National Congress.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born in Karachi on 25th December 1876. His father's name was Poonja Jinnah, who was a merchant. He received his primary education from "Sindh Mudrasatul-Islam" in Karachi. After completing his primary education, he left for England, where he got admission in law and soon become a barrister. After completing his education, he came back to India and helped his father to overcome financial crises. Once Jinnah decided to give up his education but then he realized his mistake and started his education again.

After coming back to India, he went to Bombay to start his practice. In the beginning, he faced some problems in getting cases but even at that time he refused to accept anyone's help and soon overcome this crisis. In the begging Jinnah was a great supporter of Hindu-Muslim unity, so, he joined All India National Congress. In 1913 Jinnah joined Muslim League and took an active part to make it effective.

It was through his efforts that Muslim League and Congress Party agreed to a political settlement in 1916. This agreement is known as "Lucknow Pact". According to this pact, Congress for the first time recognized a separate position of the Muslims and accepted the Muslim demand for a separate electorate. As the time passes and Jinnah realized that Congress is only for Hindus and only protecting Hindu's rights, Jinnah left Congress and devoted all his energies for the welfare of Muslims of Indian Sub-Continent. In 1928, when Nehru put forward his report also known as "Nehru Report" in the history, in which he rejects the fact that Muslims are a separate nation in the India.

In his report, he insisted that there is only one nation in the India i.e. Hindus (although Congress agreed in Lucknow Pact that Muslims are a separate nation). Jinnah put forward his fourteen points in 1929, in which it is clearly said that there are two big nations in the India i.e. Muslims and Hindus not one as it was claimed in Nehru report. Jinnah fourteen points also includes demands for some constitutional reforms. Jinnah was very anxious about the future of Muslims of India. He wished that the Muslims should emerge as an effective force but Muslim League suffered from internal problems. In 1934, Jinnah took over control of the Muslim League and made it strong and organized party within few years. In 1940, at the 27th annual session of the Muslim League, held in Lahore, Jinnah with other Muslim leaders analyzed the political problems of Muslims in great deal. A resolution was passed unanimously which is known as Lahore Resolution. In this resolution it was demanded that Muslims of the Indian Sub-Continent should have a separate homeland comprising the regions of the Sub-Continent having a Muslim majority. After the Lahore Resolution passed on 23rd March, 19940, the Muslim League entered into a new phase and under the presidency of Jinnah soon become a popular party. Jinnah put his best to made Muslim League a true representative party of Muslims. The results were obvious in 1945-46 elections, when Muslim League enjoyed a landslide victory both in central assembly as well as in provincial assembly elections. The Muslims continued their organized efforts under the guidelines provided to them by Jinnah. As a result of these efforts Pakistan came into being on 14th August, 1947.Jinnah was the first governor general of Pakistan. The establishment of Pakistan was the result of the constant struggle and great sacrifices of the Muslims of the Sub-Continent. It was due to determined and shrewd leadership of Jinnah that the Muslims of Sub-Continent had a homeland of their own. Jinnah passed away on 11th September 1948. He was given the title of Quaid-e-Azam (The greatest leader) by his nation for his services for his nation.

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