What Is The Name Of The President Of Madagascar?

What is the name of the president of Madagascar; find out other factual information by reading this article.

Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:

total: 587,040 sq km

land: 581,540 sq km

water: 5,500 sq km

Area""comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims:

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m deep isobath

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish

Land use:

arable land: 4%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 41%

forests and woodland: 40%

other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Environment""current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered

Environment""international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography""note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

People

Population: 14,873,387 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 45% (male 3,356,104; female 3,279,056)

15-64 years: 52% (male 3,841,248; female 3,908,209)

65 years and over: 3% (male 234,549; female 254,221) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.8% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 41.52 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 13.56 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 89.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 53.24 years

male: 52.01 years

female: 54.51 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.7 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:

noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)

adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry""Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 80%

male: 88%

female: 73% (1990 est.)

Government

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar

conventional short form: Madagascar

local long form: Republique de Madagascar

local short form: Madagascar

former: Malagasy Republic

Data code: MA

Government type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Didier RATSIRAKA (since 10 February 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Tantely Rene Gabriot ANDRIANARIVO (since NA 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly

election results: Didier RATSIRAKA elected president; percent of vote""Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 50.7%, Albert ZAFY (AFFA) 49.3%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note""the legislature is scheduled to become a bicameral Paliament with the establishment of a Senate; two-thirds of the seats of this Senate will be filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third of the seats will be appointed by the president; the total number of seats will be determined by the National Assembly; all members will serve four-year terms

elections: National Assembly""last held 17 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: National Assembly""percent of vote by party""NA; seats by party""AREMA 62, LEADER/Fanilo 15, AVI 14, RPSD 11, AFFA 6, MFM 3, AKFM/Fanavaozana 3, GRAD/Iloafo 1, Fihaonana 1, independents 34

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme); High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders: Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVELO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Judged by Your Work or AVI [Norbert RATSIRAHONANA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]; Action, Truth, Development, and Harmony or AFFA [Professor Albert ZAFY]; Movement for the Progress of Madagascar or MFM [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA]; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana [Pastor Richard ANDRIAMANJATO]; Group of Reflection and Action for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD/Iloafo [Tovonanahary RABETSITONTA]; Fihaonana Rally or Fihaonana [Guy RAZANAMASY]

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM; Federalist Movement

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO



Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Biclair Henri ANDRIANANTOANDRO

chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Howard T. PERLOW

embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo

mailing address: B. P. 620, Antananarivo

telephone: [261] (2) 212-57, 200-89, 207-18

FAX: [261] (2) 345-39

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

Economy

Economy""overview: Madagascar suffers from chronic malnutrition, underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for 32% of GDP and contributing more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features textile manufacturing and the processing of agricultural products. Growth in output in 1992-97 averaged less than the growth rate of the population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and demonstrations, a decline in world coffee demand, and the erratic commitment of the government to economic reform. Formidable obstacles stand in the way of Madagascar's realizing its considerable growth potential; the extent of government reforms, outside financial aid, and foreign investment will be key determinants.

GDP: purchasing power parity""$10.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP""real growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

GDP""per capita: purchasing power parity""$730 (1997 est.)

GDP""composition by sector:

agriculture: 32%

industry: 13%

services: 55% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 34.9% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1997)

Labor force: 7 million (1995)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:

revenues: $477 million

expenditures: $706 million, including capital expenditures of $264 million (1996 est.)

Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (1993 est.)

Electricity""production: 595 million kWh (1996)

Electricity""production by source:

fossil fuel: 41.18%

hydro: 58.82%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1996)

Electricity""consumption: 595 million kWh (1996)

Electricity""exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity""imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture""products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products

Exports: $170 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports""commodities: coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves, shellfish, sugar, petroleum products (1995 est.)

Exports""partners: France 31.7%, Japan 15.8%, Germany 6.4%, Reunion 5.7% (1996)

Imports: $477 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Imports""commodities: intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13% (1995 est.)

Imports""partners: France 31.0%, Iran 9.1%, South Africa 8.2%, Japan 5.8%, US 5.0% (1996)

Debt""external: $4.4 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid""recipient: $298.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1""5,468.5 (January 1999), 5,441.4 (1998), 5,090.9 (1997), 4,061.3 (1996), 4,265.6 (1995), 3,067.3 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 34,000 (1994)

Telephone system: system is above average for Africa

domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links

international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations""1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.74 million (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (in addition, there are 36 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 280,000 (1994 est.)

Transportation

Railways:

total: 883 km

narrow gauge: 883 km 1.000-m gauge (1994)

Highways:

total: 49,837 km

paved: 5,781 km

unpaved: 44,056 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Lakandranon' Ampangalana (Canal des Pangalanes)

Ports and harbors: Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Merchant marine:

total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,311 GRT/31,533 DWT

ships by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1998 est.)

Airports: 133 (1998 est.)

Airports""with paved runways:

total: 29

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 20

under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports""with unpaved runways:

total: 104

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 59

under 914 m: 42 (1998 est.)

Military

Military branches: Popular Armed Forces (includes Intervention Forces, Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces""includes Navy and Air Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment

Military manpower""military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower""availability:

males age 15-49: 3,415,726 (1999 est.)

Military manpower""fit for military service:

males age 15-49: 2,027,757 (1999 est.)

Military manpower""reaching military age annually:

males: 144,779 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures""dollar figure: $29 million (1994)

Military expenditures""percent of GDP: 1% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes""international: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin

*Information obtained from the Central Intelligence Agency's World Fact Book.

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