Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are two different types of cells that make up all living things. Here is what they are and what the differences between them are.
In the world of cells, there are two major groups: the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes. They are very similar in that they contain many of the same parts. However, there are a few major differences between them.
Eukaryotes contain membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles, while prokaryotes lack this membrane-bound nucleus. Prokaryotes are classified in two kingdoms separate from the eukaryotes. Eukaryotes are the type of cells that make up plants and one celled organisms, but not animals.
The reason that they have a membrane-bound nucleus is because they have to carry out all the processes of life, which is untrue in prokaryotes. Prokaryotes rely on many cells working together to function. While eukaryotes are radically different from one another, they do have three general parts that allow them to carry out these processes of life. These are the cell membrane, the nucleus, and other organelles. The organelles are very important to the cell's functioning.
Some of these organelles include mitochondria, which transfer energy from organic compounds to ATP. The ribosomes organize the synthesis of proteins (which is used to get energy). The rough endoplasmic reticulum prepares proteins for export. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum regulates calcium levels, breaks down toxic substances, and synthesizes steroids. The golgi body processes and packages substances produced by the cell. The lysosomes digest molecules.
There are other little parts to the cells which aid in all of this. These include microfilaments, cilia, flagella (those two assist in transportation), and of course the nucleus. In a plant, there are also the cell wall, the vacuole, and the plastid. All of these organelles are used to carry out the life processes.
Prokaryotes have different structures. These cells aren't carrying out life processes by themselves. Instead, several similar cells gather into what is known as tissue. Then, several different types of tissue gather together to form organs, which carry out specific life processes. There is muscle tissue, nerve tissue, and connective tissue, as well as others. When these tissues get together, they can form organs like the stomach, the liver, the heart, etc. As we know, all of these types of tissue are necessary in order to make an organ function correctly.
After organs have formed, they gather together in an organ system. For example, the stomach gathers with the intestines, the esophagus, etc. in order to form the digestive system. This entire system carries out one important life process. This is the major difference between the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes. The prokaryotes are dependent on other similar cells and different cells in order to form what's necessary for the life processes, while each eukaryotic cell has all the organelles it needs to carry out the processes of life.
It is thought that at one time, only prokaryotes existed on earth. They "˜ate' organic compounds and reproduced, slowly forming more complicated structures. After awhile, some of them evolved into eukaryotes. This is how different organisms managed to come about on earth. Of course, this is only a scientific theory, not an absolute proven fact.