World Facts And Stats: Niger

Facts and information about Niger


Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Africa


total: 1.267 million sq km

land: 1,266,700 sq km

water: 300 sq km

Area""comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:

total: 5,697 km

border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Niger River 200 m

highest point: Mont Greboun 1,944 m

Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, petroleum

Land use:

arable land: 3%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 7%

forests and woodland: 2%

other: 88% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment""current issues: overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction

Environment""international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography""note: landlocked


Population: 9,962,242 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 48% (male 2,445,536; female 2,346,844)

15-64 years: 50% (male 2,421,971; female 2,518,248)

65 years and over: 2% (male 121,253; female 108,390) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.95% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 52.31 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 22.78 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 112.79 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 41.96 years

male: 42.22 years

female: 41.7 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.24 children born/woman (1999 est.)


noun: Nigerien(s)

adjective: Nigerien

Ethnic groups: Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French expatriates

Religions: Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians

Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 13.6%

male: 20.9%

female: 6.6% (1995 est.)


Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Niger

conventional short form: Niger

local long form: Republique du Niger

local short form: Niger

Data code: NG

Government type: republic

Capital: Niamey

Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements, singular""departement), and 1 capital district* (capitale district); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder

Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)

Constitution: the constitution of January 1993 was revised by national referendum on 12 May 1996

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Ibrahim BARE Mainassara (since 28 January 1996); note""the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ibrahim BARE Mainassara (since 28 January 1996); note""Ibrahim MAYAKI (since 27 November 1997) was appointed prime minister by the president but does not exercise any executive authority and is only the implementor of the president's programs; the president is both chief of state and head of government

note: President Ibrahim BARE was assasinated on the 9 April 1999

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; last held 7-8 July 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); note""Ibrahim BARE Mainassara initially became president when he ousted President Mahamane OUSMANE in a coup on 27 January 1996 and subsequently defeated him in the flawed election of July 1996

election results: percent of vote""Ibrahim BARE Mainassara 52.22%, Mahamane OUSMANE 19.75%, Tandja MAMADOU 15.65%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 7.60%, Moumouni AMADOU Djermakoye 4.77%

Legislative branch: two-chamber National Assembly; one chamber with 83 seats (members elected by popular vote for five-year terms); selection process for second chamber not established

elections: last held 23 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)

election results: percent of vote by party""NA; seats by party""UNIRD 59, ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya 8, UDPS-Amana 3, coalition of independents 3, MDP-Alkwali 1, UPDP-Shamuwa 4, DARAJA 3, PMT-Albarka 2

Judicial branch: State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP-AUMUNCI [Issoufou BACHARD, chairman]; DARAJA [Ali TALBA, chairman]; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; Movement for Development and Pan-Africanism or MDP-Alkwali [Mai Manga BOUCAR, chairman]; National Movement of the Development Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Tandja MAMADOU, chairman]; National Union of Independents for Democratic Revival or UNIRD [President Ibrahim BARE Mainassara]; Niger Progressive Party-African Democratic Rally or PPN-RDA [Dandiko KOULODO]; Niger Social Democrat Party or PADN [Malam Adji WAZIRI]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahia or ANDPS-Zaman Lahia [Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE]; PMT-Albarka [Idi Ango OMAR]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress-Amana or UDPS-Amana [Mohamed ABDULLAHI]; Union of Patriots, Democrats, and Progressives-Shamuwa or UPDP-Shamuwa [Professor Andre' SALIFOU, chairman]; Union of Popular Forces for Democracy and Progress-Sawaba or UFPDP-Sawaba [Issoufou ASSOUMANE, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [leader NA]


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA

chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Charles O. CECIL

embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey

mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey

telephone: [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64

FAX: [227] 73 31 67

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band


Economy""overview: Niger is a poor, landlocked Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, reexport trade, and increasingly less on uranium, its major export since the 1970s. The 50% devaluation of the West African franc in January 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on bilateral and multilateral aid for operating expenses and public investment and is strongly induced to adhere to structural adjustment programs designed by the IMF and the World Bank. Short-term prospects depend largely on upcoming negotiations on debt relief and extended aid.

GDP: purchasing power parity""$9.4 billion (1998 est.)

GDP""real growth rate: 4.5% (1998 est.)

GDP""per capita: purchasing power parity""$970 (1998 est.)

GDP""composition by sector:

agriculture: 40%

industry: 18%

services: 42% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 29.3% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1998)

Labor force: 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries

Labor force""by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%

Unemployment rate: NA%


revenues: $370 million (including $160 million from foreign sources)

expenditures: $370 million, including capital expenditures of $186 million (1998 est.)

Industries: cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses, and a few other small light industries; uranium mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity""production: 170 million kWh (1996)

Electricity""production by source:

fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1996)

Electricity""consumption: 365 million kWh (1996)

Electricity""exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity""imports: 195 million kWh (1996)

note: imports electricity from Nigeria

Agriculture""products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry

Exports: $269 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports""commodities: uranium ore 50%, livestock products 20%, cowpeas, onions (1996 est.)

Exports""partners: Greece 21%, Canada 18%, France 12%, Nigeria 7% (1996 est.)

Imports: $295 million (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports""commodities: consumer goods, primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals

Imports""partners: France 17%, Cote d'Ivoire 7%, US 5%, Belgium-Luxembourg 4%, Nigeria (1996 est.)

Debt""external: $1.2 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid""recipient: $222 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1""560.01 (January 1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 14,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system: small system of wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern area

domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned

international: satellite earth stations""2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 15, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 620,000 (1995 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 10 (in addition, there are seven low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 105,000 (1995 est.)


Railways: 0 km


total: 10,100 km

paved: 798 km

unpaved: 9,302 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: Niger river is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin frontier from mid-December through March

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 27 (1998 est.)

Airports""with paved runways:

total: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports""with unpaved runways:

total: 18

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 15

under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)


Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Police

Military manpower""military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower""availability:

males age 15-49: 2,117,868 (1999 est.)

Military manpower""fit for military service:

males age 15-49: 1,143,355 (1999 est.)

Military manpower""reaching military age annually:

males: 102,762 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures""dollar figure: $20 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures""percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY96/97)

Transnational Issues

Disputes""international: Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern Niger; delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

*Information obtained from the Central Intelligence Agency's World Fact Book.

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