World Facts And Stats: What Two Countries Border Mongolia?

Basic factual information about Mongolia.


Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia


total: 1.565 million sq km

land: 1.565 million sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area""comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:

total: 8,114 km

border countries: China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m

highest point: Tavan Bogd Uul 4,374 m

Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use:

arable land: 1%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 80%

forests and woodland: 9%

other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms can occur in the spring; grassland fires

Environment""current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification; mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment

Environment""international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography""note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia


Population: 2,617,379 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 36% (male 480,087; female 464,609)

15-64 years: 60% (male 787,222; female 787,405)

65 years and over: 4% (male 42,219; female 55,837) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.45% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 22.51 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 7.97 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 64.63 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 61.81 years

male: 59.71 years

female: 64.02 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1999 est.)


noun: Mongolian(s)

adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups: Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%

note: previously limited religious activity because of communist regime

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 82.9%

male: 88.6%

female: 77.2% (1988 est.)


Country name:

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Mongolia

local long form: none

local short form: Mongol Uls

former: Outer Mongolia

Data code: MG

Government type: republic

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular""aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular""hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)

National holiday: National Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: 12 February 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Janlavyn NARANTSATSRALT (since 9 December 1998)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural in consultation with the president

elections: president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 18 May 1997 (next to be held summer 2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural

election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI elected president; percent of vote""Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 60.8%, Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP and MSDP) 29.8%, Jambyn GOMBOJAV (MUTP) 6.6%; following five months of political deadlock which left Mongolia without a working government, Janlavyn NARANTSATSRALT was elected prime minister on 9 December 1998 by a vote in the State Great Hural of 36 to 21, with nine abstentions and 10 absentees

Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 30 June 1996 (next to be held NA June 2000)

election results: percent of vote by party""DUC 66%, MPRP 33%, MCP 1%; seats by party""DUC 50 (MNDP 34, MSDP 13, independents 3), MPRP 25, MCP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts, judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the State Great Hural

Political parties and leaders: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [N. ENKHBAYAR, general secretary]; Democratic Union Coalition or DUC [Mendsaihan ENHSAIHAN, general secretary] (includes Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [T. ELBEGDORJ, chairman], Mongolian Social Democratic Party or MSDP [Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ, chairman], Green Party [NYAM]; and Mongolian Democratic Party of Believers or MDPB [leader NA]); Mongolian Conservative Party or MCP [JARGALSAIHAN]; Democratic Power Coalition [D. BYAMBASUREN, chairman] (includes Mongolian Democratic Renaissance Party or MDRP [BYAMBASUREN, chairman] and Mongolian People's Party or MPP [leader NA]); Mongolian National Solidarity Party or MNSP [leader NA]; Bourgeois Party/Capitalist Party [VARGALSAIHAN, chairman]; United Heritage Party or UHP [B. JAMTSAI] (includes United Party of Herdsman and Farmers [leader NA], Independence Party [leader NA], Traditional United Conservative Party [leader NA], and Mongolian United Private Property Owners Party [leader NA]); Workers' Party [leader NA]

International organization participation: AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR

chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117

FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Alphonse F. LA PORTA

embassy: inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar

mailing address: c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, C.P.O. 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002

telephone: [976] (1) 329095

FAX: [976] (1) 320776

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo"""a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)


Economy""overview: The government has embraced free-market economics, freezing spending, easing price controls, liberalizing domestic and international trade. Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide expanses of unproductive land, however, have constrained economic development. Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock. In past years, extensive mineral resources had been developed with Soviet support; total Soviet assistance at its height amounted to 30% of GDP, but disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91. The mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. The Mongolian leadership has been soliciting support from foreign donors and economic growth picked up in 1997 and 1998 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity""$5.8 billion (1998 est.)

GDP""real growth rate: 3.5% (1998 est.)

GDP""per capita: purchasing power parity""$2,250 (1998 est.)

GDP""composition by sector:

agriculture: 31%

industry: 35%

services: 34% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36.3% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 24.5% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1998)

Labor force: 1.115 million (mid-1993 est.)

Labor force""by occupation: primarily herding/agricultural

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (1998)


revenues: $260 million (1998)

expenditures: $330 million (1998)

Industries: copper, construction materials, mining (particularly coal); food and beverage, processing of animal products

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1997 est.)

Electricity""production: 2.3 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity""production by source:

fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1996)

Electricity""consumption: 2.681 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity""exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity""imports: 381 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture""products: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses

Exports: $316.8 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports""commodities: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals

Exports""partners: China 30.1%, Switzerland 21.5%, Russia 12.1%, South Korea 9.7%, US 8.1% (1998)

Imports: $472.4 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports""commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea

Imports""partners: Russia 30.6%, China 13.3%, Japan 11.7%, South Korea 7.5%, US 6.9% (1998)

Debt""external: $500 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid""recipient: $250 million (1998 est.)

Currency: 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1""902 (January 1999), 840.83 (1998), 789.99 (1997), 548.40 (1996), 448.61 (1995), 412.72 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 93,600 (1998)

Telephone system:

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station""1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 220,000

Television broadcast stations: 1 (in addition, there are 18 provincial repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 120,000 (1993 est.)



total: 1,928 km

broad gauge: 1,928 km 1.524-m gauge (1994)


total: 46,470 km

paved: 3,730 km

unpaved: 42,740 km (1997 est.)

note: much of the unpaved rural road system consists of rough cross-country tracks

Waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1988)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 34 (1994 est.)

Airports""with paved runways:

total: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

under 914 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports""with unpaved runways:

total: 26

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)


Military branches: Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security Forces and Frontier Guards), Air Force

Military manpower""military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower""availability:

males age 15-49: 702,141 (1999 est.)

Military manpower""fit for military service:

males age 15-49: 457,270 (1999 est.)

Military manpower""reaching military age annually:

males: 28,613 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures""dollar figure: $20.3 million (1997)

Military expenditures""percent of GDP: 2% (1997)

Transnational Issues

Disputes""international: none

*Information obtained from the Central Intelligence Agency's World Fact Book.

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